Our transportation networks are the basic infrastructure supporting our daily life and economic activities and are in constant need of improvement and maintenance - but who should pay for their improvement? The state through direct and indirect taxes? The user through tolls and fares? The transport operator? And who should pay for the environmental impact?
This book discusses the basic concept and practical conditions of financial resources for transportation systems. After describing the theoretical basis of burden, the book introduces the policies and financial systems established for transportation in some developed countries (Germany, France, UK, USA, Japan) and compares them from an analysis viewpoint. The book then offers a methodology for comparing the structure of financial resources and presents calculations based on the investment amounts the different groups (eg. transport operators, the state) must contribute to sustain and improve the transport system.
In the first half of the book, the focus is on what positions each country takes in regard to:
The second half clarifies how such national policies are reflected in the actual financial resources. Here, after a detailed review of the financial systems related to transportation in various countries, a methodology for an international comparison of financial resources for the improvements of transportation systems is shown.
This comprehensive and accessible book introduces the basic concepts of transport policy and decision-making. The foundations for policy are presented, incorporating a review of why policy is needed, the policy formulation process and models of decision-making that are appropriate to public sector policy makers.
The bus is the most patronised of all land-based public passenger mode but is seen as a somewhat unglamorous means of supporting mobility and accessibility, in contrast to rail - heavy and light, yet offers so much to the travelling public as well as offering attractive sustainability opportunities. This book reflects the author's perspective on issues of importance to the preservation and health of the bus sector. The twenty one chapters cover the themes of institutional reform, performance measurement and monitoring, service quality, costing and pricing of services including commercial and non-commercial contracts, travel choice and demand, integrated bus-based systems, and public transport policy, especially challenges in growing patronage.
Namdev is a central figure in the cultural history of India, especially within the field of "bhakti," a devotional practice that has created publics of memory for over eight centuries. Born in the Marathi-speaking region of the Deccan in the late thirteenth century, Namdev is remembered as a simple, low-caste Hindu tailor whose innovative performances of devotional songs spread his fame widely. He is central to many religious traditions within Hinduism, as well as to Sikhism, and he is a key early literary figure in Maharashtra, northern India, and Punjab.
In the modern period, Namdev appears throughout the public spheres of Marathi and Hindi and in India at large, where his identity fluctuates between regional associations and a quiet, pan-Indian, nationalist-secularist profile that champions the poor, oppressed, marginalized, and low caste. Christian Lee Novetzke considers the way social memory coheres around the figure of Namdev from the sixteenth century to the present, examining the practices that situate Namdev's memory in multiple historical publics. Focusing primarily on Maharashtra and drawing on ethnographies of devotional performance, archival materials, scholarly historiography, and popular media, especially film, Novetzke vividly illustrates how religious communities in India preserve their pasts and, in turn, create their own historical narratives.
For five and a half centuries amphorae were used by the ancient Greeks to transport olive oil, wine and other liquid and semi-liquid products, and their analysis provides the main source of information on the organic staples of the classical economy. Traditionally chronological and regional types have been established by stylistic analysis and the incomplete evidence of administrative stamps. The author surveys this methodology and compares it with the results of his own extensive work on the ceramic petrology of Greek amphorae. This approach sheds new light by allowing analysis of undiagnostic sherds. This study places amphorae in the braoder context of Greek agricultural production, bulk transportation and changing trade patterns. It also explores amphora production within a broader ceramic complex by a detailed study of Corinthian amphora workshops. But perhaps the most lasting contribution of this book is the considered suggestions it makes for the scientific study of coarsewares, the importance of which have previously been underestimated.