Our transportation networks are the basic infrastructure supporting our daily life and economic activities and are in constant need of improvement and maintenance - but who should pay for their improvement? The state through direct and indirect taxes? The user through tolls and fares? The transport operator? And who should pay for the environmental impact?
This book discusses the basic concept and practical conditions of financial resources for transportation systems. After describing the theoretical basis of burden, the book introduces the policies and financial systems established for transportation in some developed countries (Germany, France, UK, USA, Japan) and compares them from an analysis viewpoint. The book then offers a methodology for comparing the structure of financial resources and presents calculations based on the investment amounts the different groups (eg. transport operators, the state) must contribute to sustain and improve the transport system.
In the first half of the book, the focus is on what positions each country takes in regard to:
The second half clarifies how such national policies are reflected in the actual financial resources. Here, after a detailed review of the financial systems related to transportation in various countries, a methodology for an international comparison of financial resources for the improvements of transportation systems is shown.
Hybrid Predictive Control for Dynamic Transport Problems develops methods for the design of predictive control strategies for nonlinear-dynamic hybrid discrete-/continuous-variable systems. The methodology is designed for real-time applications, particularly the study of dynamic transport systems. Operational and service policies are considered, as well as cost reduction. The control structure is based on a sound definition of the key variables and their evolution. A flexible objective function able to capture the predictive behaviour of the system variables is described. Coupled with efficient algorithms, mainly drawn from area of computational intelligence, this is shown to optimize performance indices for real-time applications. The framework of the proposed predictive control methodology is generic and, being able to solve nonlinear mixed integer optimization problems dynamically, is readily extendable to other industrial processes.
The main topics of this book are:
. hybrid predictive control (HPC) design based on evolutionary multiobjective optimization (EMO);
. HPC based on EMO for dial-a-ride systems; and
. HPC based on EMO for operational decisions in public transport systems.
Hybrid Predictive Control for Dynamic Transport Problems is a comprehensive analysis of HPC and its application to dynamic transport systems. Introductory material on evolutionary algorithms is presented in summary in an appendix. The text will be of interest to control and transport engineers working on the operational optimization of transport systems and to academic researchers working with hybrid systems. The potential applications of the generic methods presented here to other process fields will make the book of interest to a wider group of researchers, scientists and graduate students working in other control-related disciplines."
The rapid growth of the Asian urban population concentrates on a few large cities, turning them into giant megacities. Despite new theoretical insights into the benefits of megacities, the emerging Asia is facing a daunting challenge concerning the management of infrastructure and services in their megacities. The deteriorating urban mobility is the most difficult challenge with respect to the sharp increase in vehicle numbers and to inadequate and poorly managed road infrastructure. Public transport, a sustainable mode of mobility, is subjected to a vicious cycle of poor service, decreasing ridership and lower investment. Despite various policy initiatives, the situation has not improved. The scale and growth pattern of Asian megacities have distinctive features which generate a unique set of challenges and opportunities. New perspectives are needed to effectively address the transportation problems making the best use of available opportunities. This book, which is a result of an international collaborative research, addresses these challenges by providing insightful analysis and novel viewpoints.
This book addresses a wide range of approaches that come under the heading of Public Choice, paying particular attention to the work of Buchanan, Tullock and Olson. Public Choice or the economic theory of politics' is one of the most important developments in the social sciences of the last twenty years. "The Limits of Public Choice" argues that the claims made by many economists and their followers about the scope and richness of this approach are greatly exaggerated. Yet despite some of the problems with Public Choice, Lars Udehn claims that the recent popularity of economic thinking in the other social sciences, refered to as economic imperialism', has had a revitalizing effect on economics. He argues for the richness of the sociological approach to politics, as a complement to the economic one.
This book discusses D. H. Lawrence's interest in, and engagement with, transport as a literal and metaphorical focal point for his ontological concerns.Â Focusing on five key novels, this book explores issues of mobility, modernity and gender.Â Exploring how mechanized transportation reflects industry and patriarchy in Sons and Lovers, the book then considers issues of female mobility in The Rainbow, the signifying of war transport in Women in Love, revolution and the meeting of primitive and modern in The Plumed Serpent, then the reflection of dystopian post-war concerns in Lady Chatterley's Lover. Appealing to Lawrence, Modernist, and mobilities researchers, this book is also of interest to readers interested in early twentieth century society, the First World War and transport history.