Bringing together insights and perspectives from close to 70 of the world's leading experts in the field, this timely Handbook provides an up-to-date guide to the most recent and state-of-the-art advances in transport economics. The comprehensive coverage includes topics such as the relationship between transport and the spatial economy, recent advances in travel demand analysis, the external costs of transport, investment appraisal, pricing, equity issues, competition and regulation, the role of public - private partnerships and the development of policy in local bus services, rail, air and maritime transport This Handbook is designed both for use on postgraduate and advanced undergraduate courses and as a reference for anyone working in the field. It also complements the textbook Principles of Transport Economics.
Customer-Oriented Optimization in Public Transportation develops models, results and algorithms for optimizing public transportation from a customer-oriented point of view. The methods used are based on graph-theoretic approaches and integer programming. The specific topics are all motivated by real-world examples which occurred in practical projects. An appendix summarizes some of the basics of optimization needed to interpret the material in the book.
In detail, the topics the book covers in its three parts are as follows:
1. Stop location. Does it make sense to open new stations along existing bus or railway lines? If yes, in which locations? The problem is modeled as a continuous covering problem. To solve it the author develops a finite dominating set and shows that efficient methods are possible if the special structure of the covering matrix is used.
2. Delay management. Should a train wait for delayed feeder trains or should it depart in time? The author builds up two different integer programming models and a model based on project planning methods. Properties and solution methods are developed.
3. Tariff planning. Part 3 deals with the design of zone tariff systems, in which the fare is determined by the number of zones used by the passengers. The author presents a model for this problem and approaches based on clustering theory.
Hybrid Predictive Control for Dynamic Transport Problems develops methods for the design of predictive control strategies for nonlinear-dynamic hybrid discrete-/continuous-variable systems. The methodology is designed for real-time applications, particularly the study of dynamic transport systems. Operational and service policies are considered, as well as cost reduction. The control structure is based on a sound definition of the key variables and their evolution. A flexible objective function able to capture the predictive behaviour of the system variables is described. Coupled with efficient algorithms, mainly drawn from area of computational intelligence, this is shown to optimize performance indices for real-time applications. The framework of the proposed predictive control methodology is generic and, being able to solve nonlinear mixed integer optimization problems dynamically, is readily extendable to other industrial processes. The main topics of this book are: * hybrid predictive control (HPC) design based on evolutionary multiobjective optimization (EMO); * HPC based on EMO for dial-a-ride systems; and * HPC based on EMO for operational decisions in public transport systems. Hybrid Predictive Control for Dynamic Transport Problems is a comprehensive analysis of HPC and its application to dynamic transport systems. Introductory material on evolutionary algorithms is presented in summary in an appendix. The text will be of interest to control and transport engineers working on the operational optimization of transport systems and to academic researchers working with hybrid systems. The potential applications of the generic methods presented here to other process fields will make the book of interest to a wider group of researchers, scientists and graduate students working in other control-related disciplines.
The Law and Economics of Public Health synthesizes the empirical research findings on the relationship between law and the public's health that are found scattered in different literature ranging from economic journals to medical journals, journals on addictive behaviors, law reviews, and books. This is the only study to date that has assembled the empirical evidence from many areas ranging from motor vehicle liability and dram shop liability to medical malpractice, products liability as it applies to pharmaceutical products, and medical devices. The Law and Economics of Public Health addresses the fundamental question as to whether or not and the extent to which imposing tort liability on potential injurers improves the public's health. Does the threat of litigation on potential injurers make them exercise more caution? Does insurance coverage counter incentives to be careful? Does the tort system operate as perfectly as the theory would have it? This monograph answers these questions on the basis of empirical evidence. The Law and Economics of Public Health discusses both theory and empirical evidence in several areas of personal injury to which tort liability has been applied.The monograph starts by describing the general law and economics framework used to assess both positive and normative issues relating to tort liability. It then presents the rationale for and empirical evidence on particular applications of tort liability as it applies to personal injury.
This book is an introduction to a rapidly developing field of modern theoretical physics - the theory of quantum transport at nanoscale. The theoretical methods considered in the book are in the basis of our understanding of charge, spin and heat transport in nanostructures and nanostructured materials and are widely used in nanoelectronics, molecular electronics, spin-dependent electronics (spintronics) and bio-electronics. The book is based on lectures for graduate and post-graduate students at the University of Regensburg and the Technische Universitat Dresden (TU Dresden). The first part is devoted to the basic concepts of quantum transport: Landauer-Buttiker method and matrix Green function formalism for coherent transport, Tunneling (Transfer) Hamiltonian and master equation methods for tunneling, Coulomb blockade, vibrons and polarons. The results in this part are obtained as possible without sophisticated techniques, such as nonequilibrium Green functions, which are considered in detail in the second part. A general introduction into the nonequilibrium Green function theory is given. The approach based on the equation-of-motion technique, as well as more sophisticated one based on the Dyson-Keldysh diagrammatic technique are presented. The main attention is paid to the theoretical methods able to describe the nonequilibrium (at finite voltage) electron transport through interacting nanosystems, specifically the correlation effects due to electron-electron and electron-vibron interactions.