The book presents a comprehensive survey of the thermoballistic approach to charge carrier transport in semiconductors. This semi-classical approach, which the authors have developed over the past decade, bridges the gap between the opposing drift-diffusion and ballistic models of carrier transport. While incorporating basic features of the latter two models, the physical concept underlying the thermoballistic approach constitutes a novel, unifying scheme. It is based on the introduction of "ballistic configurations" arising from a random partitioning of the length of a semiconducting sample into ballistic transport intervals. Stochastic averaging of the ballistic carrier currents over the ballistic configurations results in a position-dependent thermoballistic current, which is the key element of the thermoballistic concept and forms the point of departure for the calculation of all relevant transport properties. In the book, the thermoballistic concept and its implementation are developed in great detail and specific examples of interest to current research in semiconductor physics and spintronics are worked out.
Freight Forwarding and Multimodal Transport Contracts, 2nd Edition, is a comprehensive guide to the law in relation to contract forms and terms created by operators, trade associations or international bodies such as the UN and used as a basis for trading conditions by freight forwarders, logistics suppliers, combined or multimodal transport operators and container operators.
This second edition examines the latest editions of contract forms and terms, both where their object is the supply or procurement of multimodal carriage, as well as where they are directed to the use of combined transport equipment (ie containers, swap bodies). Of particular prominence will be a detailed examination of the latest versions of conditions used by the principal UK forwarding, logistics, intermodal and container operators such as the British International Freight Association (BIFA) conditions 2005A and the current Freightliner Conditions as well as updates on many of the conditions in use and legal developments relevant to them, eg Road Haulage Association Conditions 2009, Maersk Conditions of Carriage, TT Club Conditions.
The operation of semiconductor devices depends upon the use of electrical potential barriers (such as gate depletion) in controlling the carrier densities (electrons and holes) and their transport. Although a successful device design is quite complicated and involves many aspects, the device engineering is mostly to devise a "best" device design by defIning optimal device structures and manipulating impurity profIles to obtain optimal control of the carrier flow through the device. This becomes increasingly diffIcult as the device scale becomes smaller and smaller. Since the introduction of integrated circuits, the number of individual transistors on a single chip has doubled approximately every three years. As the number of devices has grown, the critical dimension of the smallest feature, such as a gate length (which is related to the transport length defIning the channel), has consequently declined. The reduction of this design rule proceeds approximately by a factor of 1. 4 each generation, which means we will be using 0. 1-0. 15 ). lm rules for the 4 Gb chips a decade from now. If we continue this extrapolation, current technology will require 30 nm design rules, and a cell 3 2 size < 10 nm , for a 1Tb memory chip by the year 2020. New problems keep hindering the high-performance requirement. Well-known, but older, problems include hot carrier effects, short-channel effects, etc. A potential problem, which illustrates the need for quantum transport, is caused by impurity fluctuations.
Carbohydrate Chemistry provides review coverage of all publications relevant to the chemistry of monosaccharides and oligosaccharides in a given year.
Series Editors Manfred M. Fischer Geoffrey J.D. Hewings Peter Nijkamp Folke Snickars